A urinalysis or urine drug test is a specific protocol used to determine the presence of foreign, abnormal, or banned substances that would be absent in a normal urine specimen. Urinalysis is usually performed in two steps:
Preliminary screening often involves the use of a rapid urine drug test for on site detection, with the option to send the urine sample in for lab confirmation. These instant urine tests are often used to detect the presence of drug metabolites within a few minutes of obtaining a urine specimen, making these tools especially useful for immediate action, whether that may be to monitor patient compliance or confirm a reasonable suspicion.
Confirmation testing with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis is performed in a SAMHSA-certified laboratory to ascertain the results of a preliminary drug screen.