Urine drug testing is the most common method of drug testing because of several reasons:
- It is non-invasive.
- It is inexpensive.
- It can be collected even by non-medical personnel.
- Urine is a matrix that remains stable over time and can be frozen to maintain the integrity of the sample.
Although not unlimited when it comes to the number of drugs that can be tested, urine drug tests can detect several drugs, which include marijuana, cocaine, PCP, amphetamine, Ecstasy, methamphetamine, opiates, oxycodone, methadone, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine, tricyclic antidepressants, propoxyphene, tramadol, fentanyl, sufentanil, zolpidem, carisoprodol, meperidine, antihistamines, synthetic cannabinoids, designer stimulants (bath salts), dextromethorphan, direct ethanol biomarkers, high potency opioids, ketamine, propofol glucuronide, & Ritalin.
There is also an option for testing alcohol but since it cannot be detected from urine and the bloodstream, it is usually implemented for random testing and due to reasonable suspicion. Breathalyzer tests are best for detecting alcohol abuse.
The table below shows the detection time and cut-off levels for each of the illicit substances which can be detected using a urine and saliva drug test.
Urine Drug Testing